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C or Do is the first note of the C majorscale, the third note of the A minor scale (the relative minor of C major), and the fourth note (G, A, B, C) of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz.

The actual frequency has depended on historical pitch standards, and for transposing instruments a distinction is made between written and sounding or concert pitch. In English the term Do is used interchangeably with C only by adherents of fixed-Do solfège; in the movable Do system Do refers to the tonic of the prevailing key.

Historically, concert pitch has varied. For an instrument in equal temperament tuned to the A440 pitch standard widely adopted in 1939, middle C has a frequency around 261.63 Hz (for other notes see piano key frequencies).

Scientific pitch was originally proposed in 1713 by French physicist Joseph Sauveur and based on the numerically convenient frequency of 256 Hz for middle C, all C's being powers of two.


After the A440 pitch standard was adopted by musicians, the Acoustical Society of America published new frequency tables for scientific use.

&bitwise AND
|bitwise inclusive OR
^bitwise XOR (exclusive OR)
<<left shift
>>right shift
~bitwise NOT (one's complement) (unary)

External links[edit]

bit abit ba & b (a AND b)

A movement to restore the older A435 standard has used the banners "Verdi tuning", "philosophical pitch" or the easily confused scientific pitch. MiddleC (the fourth C key from left on a standard 88-key piano keyboard) is designated C4 in scientific pitch notation, and c′ in Helmholtz pitch notation; it is note number 60 in MIDI notation.[1].

While the expression Middle C is generally clear across instruments and clefs, some musicians naturally use the term to refer to the C note in the middle of their specific instrument's range.

C4 may be called Low C by someone playing a Western concert flute, which has a higher and narrower playing range than the piano, while C5 (523.251 Hz) would be Middle C. This technically inaccurate practice has led some pedagogues to encourage standardizing on C4 as the definitive Middle C in instructional materials across all instruments.[2].

Usage as a separate letter in various languages[edit]

bit abit ba | b (a OR b)

On the Grand Staff, MiddleC is notated with a ledger line above the top line of the bass staff or below the bottom line of the treble staff. Alternatively, it is written on the centre line of a staff using the alto clef, or on the fourth line from the bottom, or the second line from the top, of staves using the tenor clef.

Designation by octave[edit]

bit abit ba ^ b (a XOR b)

In vocal music, the term High C (sometimes less ambiguously called Top C[3]) can refer to either the soprano's C6 (1046.502 Hz; c′′′ in Helmholtz notation) or the tenor's C5; both are written as the C two ledger lines above the treble clef but the tenor voice sings an octave lower. The term Low C is sometimes used in vocal music to refer to C2 because this is considered the divide between true basses and bass-baritones: a basso can sing this note easily, whereas other male voices, including bass-baritones, typically cannot.

Graphic presentation[edit]

Tenor C is an organ builder's term for small C or C3 (130.813 Hz), the note one octave below Middle C.

  • In older stoplists it usually means that a rank wasn't yet full compass, omitting the bottom octave, until that Bottom Octave was added later on.
  • Note that for a classical piano and musical theory, the middle C is usually labelled as C4; However, in the MIDI standard definition (like the one used in Apple's GarageBand), this middle C (261.626 Hz) is labelled C3.

Octave nomenclature[edit]

In practice, a MIDI software can label middle C (261.626 Hz) as C3-C5, which can cause confusion, especially for beginners. The frequencies given in this table are based on the standard that A=440Hz and with equal temperament. Middle C in four clefs. Position of Middle C on a standard 88-key keyboard. C Major: C D E F G A B C.

C Natural Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C. C Harmonic Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B C. C Melodic Minor Ascending: C D E♭ F G A B C. C Melodic Minor Descending: C B♭ A♭ G F E♭ D C. C Ionian: C D E F G A B C. C Dorian: C D E♭ F G A B♭ C. C Phrygian: C D♭ E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C.

C Lydian: C D E F♯ G A B C.

If the variable ch contains the bit pattern 11100101, then ch >> 1 will produce the result 01110010, and ch >> 2 will produce 00111001.

C Mixolydian: C D E F G A B♭ C. C Aeolian: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ C. C Locrian: C D♭ E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C. C Ascending Melodic Minor: C D E♭ F G A B C. C Dorian ♭2: C D♭ E♭ F G A B♭ C. C Lydian Augmented: C D E F♯ G♯ A B C. C Lydian Dominant: C D E F♯ G A B♭ C. C Mixolydian ♭6: C D E F G A♭ B♭ C. C Locrian ♮2: C D E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ C. C Altered: C D♭ E♭ F♭ G♭ A♭ B♭ C. ^"MIDI Note/Key Number Chart", computermusicresource.com. ^Large, John (February 1981). "Theory in Practice: Building a Firm Foundation".

Music Educators Journal. Schonberg (November 4, 1979).

So erhalten Sie den C++-Compiler

"Birgit Nilsson – The Return of a Super-Soprano". The New York Times.

^"The Note That Makes Us Weep" by Daniel J.

Wakin, The New York Times, September 9, 2007.


Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=C_(musical_note)&oldid=1080376815". This is a list of operators in the C and C++programming languages. All the operators listed exist in C++; the column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading.

When not overloaded, for the operators &&, ||, and , (the comma operator), there is a sequence point after the evaluation of the first operand. C++ also contains the type conversion operators const_cast, static_cast, dynamic_cast, and reinterpret_cast. The formatting of these operators means that their precedence level is unimportant.

Most of the operators available in C and C++ are also available in other C-family languages such as C#, D, Java, Perl, and PHP with the same precedence, associativity, and semantics.


For the purposes of these tables, a, b, and c represent valid values (literals, values from variables, or return value), object names, or lvalues, as appropriate.

Operator precedence[edit]

R, S and T stand for any type(s), and K for a class type or enumerated type. All arithmetic operators exist in C and C++ and can be overloaded in C++. All comparison operators can be overloaded in C++. All logical operators exist in C and C++ and can be overloaded in C++, albeit the overloading of the logical AND and logical OR is discouraged, because as overloaded operators they behave as ordinary function calls, which means that both of their operands are evaluated, so they lose their well-used and expected short-circuit evaluation property.[1].

All bitwise operators exist in C and C++ and can be overloaded in C++.

&=bitwise AND assignment
|=bitwise inclusive OR assignment
^=bitwise exclusive OR assignment
<<=left shift assignment
>>=right shift assignment


All assignment expressions exist in C and C++ and can be overloaded in C++. For the given operators the semantic of the built-in combined assignment expression a ⊚= b is equivalent to a = a ⊚ b, except that a is evaluated only once. ^The modulus operator works just with integer operands, for floating point numbers a library function must be used instead (like fmod).

^ abcdefghijkRequires iso646.h in C. See C++ operator synonyms. ^About C++20 three-way comparison.

a & ba && b
a | ba || b
a ^ ba != b

^ abIn the context of iostreams, writers often will refer to << and >> as the "put-to" or "stream insertion" and "get-from" or "stream extraction" operators, respectively. ^ ab According to the C99 standard, the right shift of a negative number is implementation defined. Most implementations, e.g., the GCC,[2] use an arithmetic shift (i.e., sign extension), but a logical shift is possible. ^The return type of operator->() must be a type for which the -> operation can be applied, such as a pointer type. If x is of type C where C overloads operator->(), x->y gets expanded to x.operator->()->y.

^Meyers, Scott (October 1999), "Implementing operator->* for Smart Pointers"(PDF), Dr.

Dobb's Journal, Aristeia. ^About C++11 User-defined literals.



  1. ^The parentheses are not necessary when taking the size of a value, only when taking the size of a type. However, they are usually used regardless. ^C++ defines alignof operator, whereas C defines _Alignof. Both operators have the same semantics.
  2. The following is a table that lists the precedence and associativity of all the operators in the C and C++ languages. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence.
  3. Descending precedence refers to the priority of the grouping of operators and operands.
  4. Considering an expression, an operator which is listed on some row will be grouped prior to any operator that is listed on a row further below it.
  5. Operators that are in the same cell (there may be several rows of operators listed in a cell) are grouped with the same precedence, in the given direction.
  6. An operator's precedence is unaffected by overloading. The syntax of expressions in C and C++ is specified by a phrase structure grammar.[5] The table given here has been inferred from the grammar.[citation needed] For the ISO C 1999 standard, section 6.5.6 note 71 states that the C grammar provided by the specification defines the precedence of the C operators, and also states that the operator precedence resulting from the grammar closely follows the specification's section ordering:.


"The [C] syntax [i.e., grammar] specifies the precedence of operators in the evaluation of an expression, which is the same as the order of the major subclauses of this subclause, highest precedence first."
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