C&c Generals Windows 10

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In der Gratis-Version finden Sie ebenfalls eine Anzahl an C/C++-Kommandozeilenwerkzeugen, wie den leistungsstarken Linker und den Ressourcen-Compiler. Der Download des kostenlosen C++-Compilers enthält:.

Embarcadero C++ Compiler (bcc32c/bcc32x). Turbo Incremental Linker (tlink32). C++ Win32 Präprozessor (cpp32). Import-Library-Dienstprogramm zur Erstellung von Import-Libraries aus DLLs (implib). Bibliothek für Symbol-Case-Konvertierung, das Erstellen von erweiterten Bibliotheken und das Ändern der Seitengröße (tlib).

Andere nützliche Kommandozeilen-Utilities wie Make, Grep und Touch. Enthält die Embarcadero C/C++ Runtime Library und die DinkumwareANSI/ISO Standard Template Library (STL).

Designation by octave[edit]

C++Builder enthält Compiler für Win64, macOS, iOS und Android. Auch bietet C++Builder eine moderne, sehr produktive RAD Studio IDE, Debugger-Tools und Konnektivität der Enterprise-Klasse, um die plattformübergreifende UI-Entwicklung zu beschleunigen. Weitere Infos zu RAD Studio auf der Produktseite. (*) Vollständige Feature-Matrix für Community, Pro, Enterprise und Architect.

Reception[edit]

Sie können den Embarcadero C++ Compiler (BCC32C/BCC32X) und die zugehörigen Kommandozeilentools unter folgendem Link herunterladen.

Operator nameSyntaxC++ prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Additiona + bRK::operator+(Sb);Roperator+(Ka,Sb);
Subtractiona - bRK::operator-(Sb);Roperator-(Ka,Sb);
Unary plus (integer promotion)+aRK::operator+();Roperator+(Ka);
Unary minus (additive inverse)-aRK::operator-();Roperator-(Ka);
Multiplicationa * bRK::operator*(Sb);Roperator*(Ka,Sb);
Divisiona / bRK::operator/(Sb);Roperator/(Ka,Sb);
Modulo (integer remainder)[a]a % bRK::operator%(Sb);Roperator%(Ka,Sb);
IncrementPrefix++aR&K::operator++();R&operator++(K&a);
Postfixa++RK::operator++(int);Roperator++(K&a,int);
Note: C++ uses the unnamed dummy-parameter int to differentiate between prefix and postfix increment operators.
DecrementPrefix--aR&K::operator--();R&operator--(K&a);
Postfixa--RK::operator--(int);Roperator--(K&a,int);
Note: C++ uses the unnamed dummy-parameter int to differentiate between prefix and postfix decrement operators.

Usage as a letter variant in various languages[edit]

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Operator nameSyntaxIncluded
in C
Prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Equal toa bYesboolK::operator(Sconst&b)const;booloperator(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Not equal toa != b
a not_eq b[b]
YesboolK::operator!=(Sconst&b)const;booloperator!=(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Greater thana > bYesboolK::operator>(Sconst&b)const;booloperator>(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Less thana < bYesboolK::operator<(Sconst&b)const;booloperator<(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Greater than or equal toa >= bYesboolK::operator>=(Sconst&b)const;booloperator>=(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Less than or equal toa <= bYesboolK::operator<=(Sconst&b)const;booloperator<=(Kconst&a,Sconst&b);
Three-way comparison[c]a <=> bNoautoK::operator<=>(constS&b);autooperator<=>(constK&a,constS&b);
The operator has a total of 3 possible return types: std::weak_ordering, std::strong_ordering and std::partial_ordering to which they all are convertible to.

History[edit]

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Operator nameSyntaxC++ prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Logical negation (NOT)!a
not a[b]
boolK::operator!();booloperator!(Ka);
Logical ANDa && ba and b[b]boolK::operator&&(Sb);booloperator&&(Ka,Sb);
Logical ORa || b
a or b[b]
boolK::operator||(Sb);booloperator||(Ka,Sb);

Usage as a separate letter in various languages[edit]

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Operator nameSyntaxPrototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Bitwise NOT~a
compl a[b]
RK::operator~();Roperator~(Ka);
Bitwise ANDa & b
a bitand b[b]
RK::operator&(Sb);Roperator&(Ka,Sb);
Bitwise ORa | b
a bitor b[b]
RK::operator|(Sb);Roperator|(Ka,Sb);
Bitwise XORa ^ b
a xor b[b]
RK::operator^(Sb);Roperator^(Ka,Sb);
Bitwise left shift[d]a << bRK::operator<<(Sb);Roperator<<(Ka,Sb);
Bitwise right shift[d][e]a >> bRK::operator>>(Sb);Roperator>>(Ka,Sb);

Computer[edit]

Publication date. The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programmingbook written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unixoperating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.

The book was central to the development and popularization of the C programming language and is still widely read and used today. Because the book was co-authored by the original language designer, and because the first edition of the book served for many years as the de facto standard for the language, the book was regarded by many to be the authoritative reference on C.[1][2].

Operator nameSyntaxC++ prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Direct assignmenta = bR&K::operator=(Sb);N/A
Addition assignmenta += bR&K::operator+=(Sb);R&operator+=(K&a,Sb);
Subtraction assignmenta -= bR&K::operator-=(Sb);R&operator-=(K&a,Sb);
Multiplication assignmenta *= bR&K::operator*=(Sb);R&operator*=(K&a,Sb);
Division assignmenta /= bR&K::operator/=(Sb);R&operator/=(K&a,Sb);
Modulo assignmenta %= bR&K::operator%=(Sb);R&operator%=(K&a,Sb);
Bitwise AND assignmenta &= b
a and_eq b[b]
R&K::operator&=(Sb);R&operator&=(K&a,Sb);
Bitwise OR assignmenta |= b
a or_eq b[b]
R&K::operator|=(Sb);R&operator|=(K&a,Sb);
Bitwise XOR assignmenta ^= b
a xor_eq b[b]
R&K::operator^=(Sb);R&operator^=(K&a,Sb);
Bitwise left shift assignmenta <<= bR&K::operator<<=(Sb);R&operator<<=(K&a,Sb);
Bitwise right shift assignment[e]a >>= bR&K::operator>>=(Sb);R&operator>>=(K&a,Sb);

Scales[edit]

Operator nameSyntaxCan overload in C++Included
in C
C++ prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Subscripta[b]YesYesR&K::operator[](Sb);
N/A
Indirection ("object pointed to by a")*aYesYesR&K::operator*();R&operator*(Ka);
Address-of ("address of a")&aYesYesR*K::operator&();R*operator&(Ka);
Structure dereference ("member b of object pointed to by a")a->bYesYesR*K::operator->();[f]
N/A
Structure reference ("member b of object a")a.bNoYesN/A
Member selected by pointer-to-memberb of object pointed to by a[g]a->*bYesNoR&K::operator->*(Sb);R&operator->*(Ka,Sb);
Member of object a selected by pointer-to-memberba.*bNoNoN/A

Octave nomenclature[edit]

Operator nameSyntaxCan overload in C++Included
in C
Prototype examples
As member of KOutside class definitions
Function call
See Function object.
a(a1, a2)YesYesRK::operator()(Sa,Tb,...);N/A
Commaa, bYesYesRK::operator,(Sb);Roperator,(Ka,Sb);
Ternary conditionala ? b : cNoYesN/A
Scope resolutiona::bNoNoN/A
User-defined literals[h]
since C++11
"a"_bYesNoN/ARoperator""_b(Ta)
Sizeofsizeof(a)[i]
sizeof(type)
NoYesN/A
Size of parameter pack
since C++11
sizeof...(Args)NoNoN/A
Alignof
since C++11
alignof(type)
or _Alignof(type)[j]
NoYesN/A
Type identificationtypeid(a)
typeid(type)
NoNoN/A
Conversion (C-style cast)(type)aYesYesK::operatorR();[3]N/A
Conversiontype(a)NoNoNote: behaves like const_cast/static_cast/reinterpret_cast[4]
static_cast conversionstatic_cast(a)YesNoK::operatorR();
explicitK::operatorR();since C++11
N/A
Note: for user-defined conversions, the return type implicitly and necessarily matches the operator name.
dynamic cast conversiondynamic_cast(a)NoNoN/A
const_cast conversionconst_cast(a)NoNoN/A
reinterpret_cast conversionreinterpret_cast(a)NoNoN/A
Allocate storagenewtypeYesNovoid*K::operatornew(size_tx);void*operatornew(size_tx);
Allocate storage (array)newtype[n]YesNovoid*K::operatornew[](size_ta);void*operatornew[](size_ta);
Deallocate storagedelete aYesNovoidK::operatordelete(void*a);voidoperatordelete(void*a);
Deallocate storage (array)delete[] aYesNovoidK::operatordelete[](void*a);voidoperatordelete[](void*a);
Exception check
since C++11
noexcept(a)NoNoN/A

C was created by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the early 1970s as an augmented version of Ken Thompson's B.[3]Another Bell Labs employee, Brian Kernighan, had written the first C tutorial,[4]and he persuaded Ritchie to coauthor a book on the language.[5]Kernighan would write most of the book's "expository" material, and Ritchie's reference manual became its appendices.

  1. The first edition, published February 22, 1978, was the first widely available book on the C programming language. Its version of C is sometimes termed K&R C (after the book's authors), often to distinguish this early version from the later version of C standardized as ANSI C.[6].
  2. In April 1988, the second edition of the book was published, updated to cover the changes to the language resulting from the then-new ANSI C standard, particularly with the inclusion of reference material on standard libraries. The second edition of the book (and as of 2021, the most recent) has since been translated into over 20 languages.
  3. In 2012, an eBook version of the second edition was published in ePub, Mobi, and PDF formats.
  4. ANSI C, first standardized in 1989 (as ANSI X3.159-1989), has since undergone several revisions, the most recent of which is ISO/IEC 9899:2018 (also termed C17 or C18), adopted as an ANSI standard in June 2018. However, no new edition of The C Programming Language has been issued to cover the more recent standards.
  5. Byte magazine stated in August 1983, "[The C Programming Language] is the definitive work on the C language. Don't read any further until you have this book!" [1]Jerry Pournelle wrote in the magazine that year that the book "is still the standard ..
  6. He continued, "You can learn the C language without getting Kernighan and Ritchie, but that's doing it the hard way. You're also working too hard if you make it the only book on C that you buy." The C Programming Language has often been cited as a model for technical writing, with reviewers describing it as having clear presentation and concise treatment.
  7. Examples generally consist of complete programs of the type one is likely to encounter in daily use of the language, with an emphasis on system programming.
  8. Its authors said. We have tried to retain the brevity of the first edition.
  9. C is not a big language, and it is not well served by a big book. We have improved the exposition of critical features, such as pointers, that are central to C programming.
  10. We have refined the original examples, and have added new examples in several chapters. For instance, the treatment of complicated declarations is augmented by programs that convert declarations into words and vice versa.

References[edit]

As before, all examples have been tested directly from the text, which is in machine-readable form. program by Brian Kernighan (1978). The book introduced the "Hello, World!" program, which prints only the text "hello, world", as an illustration of a minimal working C program. Since then, many texts have followed that convention for introducing a programming language. Before the advent of ANSI C, the first edition of the text served as the de facto standard of the language for writers of C compilers.

With the standardization of ANSI C, the authors more consciously wrote the second edition for programmers rather than compiler writers, saying. Appendix A, the reference manual, is not the standard, but our attempt to convey the essentials of the standard in a smaller space. It is meant for easy comprehension by programmers, but not as a definition for compiler writers—that role properly belongs to the standard itself.

Appendix B is a summary of the facilities of the standard library. It too is meant for reference by programmers, not implementers. Appendix C is a concise summary of the changes from the original version.

— preface to the second edition[8]. The influence of The C Programming Language on programmers, a generation of whom first worked with C in universities and industry, has led many to accept the authors' programming style and conventions as recommended practice, if not normative practice. For example, the coding and formatting style of the programs presented in both editions of the book is often referred to as "K&R style" or the "One True Brace Style" and became the coding style used by convention in the source code for the Unix and Linuxkernels. ^ abWard, Terry A. "Annotated C / A Bibliography of the C Language". Retrieved 31 January 2015. ^Prinz, Peter; Crawford, Tony (2005-12-16). C in a Nutshell.

PrecedenceOperatorDescriptionAssociativity
1

highest

::Scope resolution (C++ only)None
2++Postfix incrementLeft-to-right
--Postfix decrement
()Function call
[]Array subscripting
.Element selection by reference
->Element selection through pointer
typeid()Run-time type information (C++ only) (see typeid)
const_castType cast (C++ only) (see const_cast)
dynamic_castType cast (C++ only) (see dynamic cast)
reinterpret_castType cast (C++ only) (see reinterpret_cast)
static_castType cast (C++ only) (see static_cast)
3++Prefix incrementRight-to-left
--Prefix decrement
+Unary plus
-Unary minus
!Logical NOT
~Bitwise NOT (One's Complement)
(type)Type cast
*Indirection (dereference)
&Address-of
sizeofSizeof
_AlignofAlignment requirement (since C11)
new, new[]Dynamic memory allocation (C++ only)
delete, delete[]Dynamic memory deallocation (C++ only)
4.*Pointer to member (C++ only)Left-to-right
->*Pointer to member (C++ only)
5*MultiplicationLeft-to-right
/Division
%Modulo (remainder)
6+AdditionLeft-to-right
-Subtraction
7<<Bitwise left shiftLeft-to-right
>>Bitwise right shift
8<=>Three-way comparison (Introduced in C++20 - C++ only)Left-to-right
9<Less thanLeft-to-right
<=Less than or equal to
>Greater than
>=Greater than or equal to
10Equal toLeft-to-right
!=Not equal to
11&Bitwise ANDLeft-to-right
12^Bitwise XOR (exclusive or)Left-to-right
13|Bitwise OR (inclusive or)Left-to-right
14&&Logical ANDLeft-to-right
15||Logical ORLeft-to-right
16?:Ternary conditional (see ?:)Right-to-left
=Direct assignment
+=Assignment by sum
-=Assignment by difference
*=Assignment by product
/=Assignment by quotient
%=Assignment by remainder
<<=Assignment by bitwise left shift
>>=Assignment by bitwise right shift
&=Assignment by bitwise AND
^=Assignment by bitwise XOR
|=Assignment by bitwise OR
throwThrow operator (exceptions throwing, C++ only)
17

lowest

,CommaLeft-to-right

[7][8][9]

Frequency[edit]

O'Reilly Media, Inc. ^Ritchie, Dennis M. "The Development of the C Language". History of Programming Languages, 2nd Edition.

  • Retrieved 2018-11-11. ^"Leap In and Try Things: Interview with Brian Kernighan". Harmony at Work. October 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-03. ^Computerphile (2015-08-18). "'C' Programming Language: Brian Kernighan - Computerphile". Archived from the original on 2021-12-21.
  • Retrieved 2018-11-11. ^Kernighan, Brian W.; Ritchie, Dennis M. (February 1978). The C Programming Language (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ^Pournelle, Jerry (December 1983). "The User Looks at Books". Retrieved 24 July 2016. ^ abKernighan, Brian; Ritchie, Dennis M. The C Programming Language (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. The C Programming Language, first edition available at the Internet Archive.
"C Programming". Bell Labs Computing Sciences Research Center.
  • Archived from the original on 2017-02-21. Retrieved 17 January 2017. Another archived page: "The C Programming Language". Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_C_Programming_Language&oldid=1075326822". Ç or ç (C-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish, Zazaki, and Romancealphabets. Romance languages that use this letter include Catalan, French, Friulian, Ligurian, Occitan, and Portuguese as a variant of the letter C with a cedilla. It is also occasionally used in Crimean Tatar and in Tajik (when written in the Latin script) to represent the /d͡ʒ/ sound. It is often retained in the spelling of loanwords from any of these languages in English, Basque, Dutch, Spanish and other Latin script spelled languages.

It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate/t͡s/ in Old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter z (Ꝣ). The phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions. Later, /t͡s/ changed into /s/ in many Romance languages and dialects. Spanish has not used the symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century (which replaced ç with the now-devoiced z), but it was adopted for writing other languages.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /ç/ represents the voiceless palatal fricative.

Evolution from Visigoth Z to modern Ç.

In many languages, ⟨ç⟩ represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a ⟨c⟩ would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/.

Known as ce trencada ('broken C') in this language, where it can be used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word.

Some examples of words with ⟨ç⟩ are amenaça ('menace'), torçat ('twisted'), xoriço ('chorizo'), forçut ('strong'), dolç ('sweet') and caça ('hunting').

A well-known word with this character is Barça, a common Catalan clipping of Futbol Club Barcelona. French (cé cédille): français ('French'), garçon ('boy'), façade ('frontage'), grinçant ('squeaking'), leçon ('lesson'), reçu ('received' [past participle]).

Graphic presentation[edit]

French does not use the character at the end of a word but it can occur at the beginning of a word (e.g., ça, 'that').[1] It is never used in French where C would denote /s/.

Occitan (ce cedilha): torçut ('twisted'), çò ('this'), ça que la ('nevertheless'), braç ('arm'), brèç ('cradle'), voraç ('voracious'). It can occur at the beginning of a word. Portuguese (cê-cedilha, cê de cedilha or cê cedilhado): it is used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩: taça ('cup'), braço ('arm'), açúcar ('sugar').

Modern Portuguese does not use the character at the beginning or at the end of a word (the nickname for Conceição is São, not Ção). According to a Portuguese grammar written in 1550, the letter ç had the sound of /dz/ around that time. Another grammar written around 1700 would say that the letter ç sounds like /s/, which shows a phonetic evolution that is still valid today. Old Spanish used ç to represent /t͡s/ before /a/, /o/, /u/. It also represented /d͡z/ allophonically when it occurred before a voiced consonant.

Early Modern Spanish used the letter ç to represent either /θ/ or /s/ before /a/, /o/, and /u/ in much the same way as Modern Spanish uses the letter z. Middle Castilian Spanish pronounced ç as /θ/, or as /ð/ before a voiced consonant.

External links[edit]

Andalusian, Canarian, and Latin American Spanish pronounced ç as /s/, or as /z/ before a voiced consonant.

KeywordOperator
and&&
and_eq&=
bitand&
bitor|
compl~
not!
not_eq!=
or||
or_eq|=
xor^
xor_eq^=

A spelling reform in the 18th century eliminated ç from Spanish orthography. In other languages, it represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate/t͡ʃ/ (like ⟨ch⟩ in English chalk):. Friulian (c cun cedilie) before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word. Turkish and Azerbaijani alphabets: çelik ('steel') and çamur ('mud'). In Manx, it is used in the digraph ⟨çh⟩, which also represents /t͡ʃ/, to differentiate it from normal ⟨ch⟩, which represents /x/. In Basque, ⟨ç⟩ (known as ze hautsia) is used in the loanword curaçao. In Dutch, it can be found in some words from French and Portuguese, such as façade, reçu, Provençaals and Curaçao. In English, ⟨ç⟩ is used in loanwords such as façade and limaçon (although the cedilla mark is often dropped: ⟨facade⟩, ⟨limacon⟩).

See also[edit]

  • In modern Spanish it can appear in loanwords, especially in Catalan proper nouns.

Influence[edit]

  1. It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate/t͡ʃ/ in the following languages:.
  2. the 4th letter of the Albanian alphabet. the 4th letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet.
  3. the 5th letter of the Tatar alphabet (based on Zamanälif). the 4th letter of the Turkish alphabet.
  4. the 3rd letter of the Turkmen alphabet.
  5. the 4th letter of the Kurmanji alphabet (also known as Northern Kurdish). the 4th letter of the Zazaki alphabet.
  6. In the 2020 version of the Latin Kazakh Alphabet, the letter represents the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate/tɕ/, which is similar to /t͡ʃ/.
  7. It previously represented a voiceless palatal click/ǂ/ in Juǀʼhoansi and Naro, though the former has replaced it with ⟨ǂ⟩ and the latter with ⟨tc⟩.
  8. The similarly shaped letter the (Ҫ ҫ) is used in the Cyrillic alphabets of Bashkir and Chuvash to represent /θ/ and /ɕ/, respectively.
  9. It also represents the retroflex flap/ɽ/ in the Rohingya Latin alphabet. Janalif uses this letter to represent the voiced postalveolar affricate/d͡ʒ/.
  10. Old Malay uses ç to represent /dʒ/ and /ɲ/. On Albanian, Belgian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Italian keyboards, Ç is directly available as a separate key; however, on most other keyboards, including the US and British keyboard, a combination of keys must be used:.
  11. In the US-International keyboard layout, these are ' followed by either C or ⇧ Shift+C. Alternatively one may press AltGr+, or AltGr+⇧ Shift+,.
  12. In classic Mac OS and macOS, these are ⌥ Opt+C and ⌥ Opt+⇧ Shift+C for lower- and uppercase, respectively.
  13. In the X Window System and many Unix consoles, one presses sequentially Compose, , and either C or ⇧ Shift+C.
  14. Alternatively, one may press AltGr+= and then either C or ⇧ Shift+C.
  15. In Microsoft Windows, these are Alt+0231 or Alt+135 for lowercase and Alt+0199 or Alt+128 for uppercase.
  16. In Microsoft Word, these are Ctrl+, and then either C or ⇧ Shift+C. The HTML character entity references are ç and Ç for lower- and uppercase, respectively.

Common scales beginning on C[edit]

  • In TeX and LaTeX, \c is used for adding the cedilla accent to a letter, so \c{c} produces "ç".
  • ^The Académie Française online dictionary also gives çà and çûdra. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ç&oldid=1080339922".
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